Feralis Biology Notes – Free Download PDF

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Biology Notes Category: Cellular Respiration, Citric Acid Cycle, Adenosine Triphosphate, Fermentation, Cell Nucleus.

Table of contents:

  1. Chemistry
  2. Cells
  3. Cellular Respiration
  4. Photosynthesis
  5. Cell Division
  6. Heredity
  7. Molecular Genetics
  8. Evolution
  9. Biological Diversity
  10. Plants
  11. Animal Forms and Function (Physiology)
  12. Animal Reproduction and Development
  13. Animal Behavior
  14. Ecology

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Feralis Biology Notes PDF

I. Chemistry: Atoms, Molecules, Ions, Bonds — Atom is made up of neutrons, protons, and electrons.

II. Cells Membrane proteins: peripheral (loosely attached with a single side surface), integral (embeds interior veins ), transmembrane (completely through, either side — this really is a TYPE of integral) Phospholipid membrane permeability — small, uncharged, non-polar molecules (polar may only if small and uncharged) and hydrophobic molecules can pass across the membrane.

III. Mobile Respiration: overall an oxidative, exergonic process (∆G -686 kcal/mole) External respiration is that the entry of air into arteries and gas flow between alveoli and bloodstream.

IV. Light is incorporated into electrons: excited electrons are unstable and re-emit consumed energy; energy is then generated by electrons of nearby pigment receptors.

V. Cell Division: Atomic division (karyokinesis) accompanied by cytokinesis – In diploid cells, there are two copies of every chromosome, forming a set (homologous chromosome).

VI. Heredity: To determine the probability of 2 or more independent events happening collectively multiply the probabilities of each Individual event.

VII. Molecular Genetic: DNA — A,T,G,C — genealogical advice about this cell — double helix w/ major and minor grooves DNA spine: 5′ to 3′ phosphodiester bonds shape phosphate backbone RNA — A,U,G,C — operational use — changes each type (mRNA linear, tRNA clover, rRNA globular) slice the PYE — C, T, and U are pyrimidines, G and A purines DNA Replication begins at special sites (origins of replication) in middle of the DNA molecule (not the end); DNA strands separate into shape replication bubbles which extend in both directions. . A large number of these bubbles happen; speed up replication of 3 billion BP DNA molecule. Prokaryotes simply have one source of replication.

VIII. Evolution: Evolution changes in species, populations, or bands; changes within allele (traits) frequencies in populations over time. – Microevolution: changes in allele frequencies that exist over time in a population (due to mutation, selection, gene flow & drift) – based Macroevolution: patterns of fluctuations in groups of related species within broad spans of geologic time.

IX. Biological Diversity: Taxonomy organisms are grouped into categories called taxa. A species name is given a name composed of a genus (closely related creature ) name and species name.

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