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Biology Notes Category: Cellular Respiration, Citric Acid Cycle, Adenosine Triphosphate, Fermentation, Cell Nucleus.
Table of contents:
- Cellular Respiration
- Cell Division
- Molecular Genetics
- Biological Diversity
- Animal Forms and Function (Physiology)
- Animal Reproduction and Development
- Animal Behavior
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Feralis Biology Notes PDF
I. Chemistry: Atoms, Molecules, Ions, Bonds — Atom is made up of neutrons, protons, and electrons.
II. Cells Membrane proteins: peripheral (loosely attached with a single side surface), integral (embeds interior veins ), transmembrane (completely through, either side — this really is a TYPE of integral) Phospholipid membrane permeability — small, uncharged, non-polar molecules (polar may only if small and uncharged) and hydrophobic molecules can pass across the membrane.
III. Mobile Respiration: overall an oxidative, exergonic process (∆G -686 kcal/mole) External respiration is that the entry of air into arteries and gas flow between alveoli and bloodstream.
IV. Light is incorporated into electrons: excited electrons are unstable and re-emit consumed energy; energy is then generated by electrons of nearby pigment receptors.
V. Cell Division: Atomic division (karyokinesis) accompanied by cytokinesis – In diploid cells, there are two copies of every chromosome, forming a set (homologous chromosome).
VI. Heredity: To determine the probability of 2 or more independent events happening collectively multiply the probabilities of each Individual event.
VII. Molecular Genetic: DNA — A,T,G,C — genealogical advice about this cell — double helix w/ major and minor grooves DNA spine: 5′ to 3′ phosphodiester bonds shape phosphate backbone RNA — A,U,G,C — operational use — changes each type (mRNA linear, tRNA clover, rRNA globular) slice the PYE — C, T, and U are pyrimidines, G and A purines DNA Replication begins at special sites (origins of replication) in middle of the DNA molecule (not the end); DNA strands separate into shape replication bubbles which extend in both directions. . A large number of these bubbles happen; speed up replication of 3 billion BP DNA molecule. Prokaryotes simply have one source of replication.
VIII. Evolution: Evolution changes in species, populations, or bands; changes within allele (traits) frequencies in populations over time. – Microevolution: changes in allele frequencies that exist over time in a population (due to mutation, selection, gene flow & drift) – based Macroevolution: patterns of fluctuations in groups of related species within broad spans of geologic time.
IX. Biological Diversity: Taxonomy organisms are grouped into categories called taxa. A species name is given a name composed of a genus (closely related creature ) name and species name.